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Uncertainty-aware Continuous Implicit Neural Representations for Remote Sensing Object Counting

Siyuan Xu · Yucheng Wang · Mingzhou Fan · Byung-Jun Yoon · Xiaoning Qian

MR1 & MR2 - Number 135
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Thu 2 May 8 a.m. PDT — 8:30 a.m. PDT


Many existing object counting methods rely on density map estimation~(DME) of the discrete grid representation by decoding extracted image semantic features from designed convolutional neural networks~(CNNs). Relying on discrete density maps not only leads to information loss dependent on the original image resolution, but also has a scalability issue when analyzing high-resolution images with cubically increasing memory complexity. Furthermore, none of the existing methods can offer reliable uncertainty quantification~(UQ) for the derived count estimates. To overcome these limitations, we design UNcertainty-aware, hypernetwork-based Implicit neural representations for Counting~(UNIC) to assign probabilities and the corresponding counting confidence over continuous spatial coordinates. We derive a sampling-based Bayesian counting loss function and develop the corresponding model training algorithm. UNIC outperforms existing methods on the Remote Sensing Object Counting~(RSOC) dataset with reliable UQ and improved interpretability of the derived count estimates. Our code is available at

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