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Adaptivity of Diffusion Models to Manifold Structures

Rong Tang · Yun Yang

MR1 & MR2 - Number 162
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Thu 2 May 8 a.m. PDT — 8:30 a.m. PDT


Empirical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of (score-based) diffusion models in generating high-dimensional data, such as texts and images, which typically exhibit a low-dimensional manifold nature. These empirical successes raise the theoretical question of whether score-based diffusion models can optimally adapt to low-dimensional manifold structures. While recent work has validated the minimax optimality of diffusion models when the target distribution admits a smooth density with respect to the Lebesgue measure of the ambient data space, these findings do not fully account for the ability of diffusion models in avoiding the the curse of dimensionality when estimating high-dimensional distributions. This work considers two common classes of diffusion models: Langevin diffusion and forward-backward diffusion. We show that both models can adapt to the intrinsic manifold structure by showing that the convergence rate of the inducing distribution estimator depends only on the intrinsic dimension of the data. Moreover, our considered estimator does not require knowing or explicitly estimating the manifold. We also demonstrate that the forward-backward diffusion can achieve the minimax optimal rate under the Wasserstein metric when the target distribution possesses a smooth density with respect to the volume measure of the low-dimensional manifold.

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